Shneour Zalman (ben Baruch) of Lyady

   Russian Hasidic leader, founder of the Habad movement. The pupil of Dov Ber of Mezhirich, he joined the Hasidim at the age of 20. In 1777 he succeeded Menahem Mendel of Vitebsk as the movement's leader, and became involved in controversy with the mitnaggedim. He was arrested bv the Russian authorities and imprisoned in St Petersburg; although he was released, he was later rearrested. In 1804 he settled in Lyady. His teaching emphasized a rational approach and stressed the importance of study and contemplation. He wrote a liturgy, a code of laws, a mystic commentary on the Pentateuch, and a kabbalist work, Likkute Amarim (also known as the Tanya).

Dictionary of Jewish Biography. .

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