Shneour Zalman (ben Baruch) of Lyady
- (1747-1813)Russian Hasidic leader, founder of the Habad movement. The pupil of Dov Ber of Mezhirich, he joined the Hasidim at the age of 20. In 1777 he succeeded Menahem Mendel of Vitebsk as the movement's leader, and became involved in controversy with the mitnaggedim. He was arrested bv the Russian authorities and imprisoned in St Petersburg; although he was released, he was later rearrested. In 1804 he settled in Lyady. His teaching emphasized a rational approach and stressed the importance of study and contemplation. He wrote a liturgy, a code of laws, a mystic commentary on the Pentateuch, and a kabbalist work, Likkute Amarim (also known as the Tanya).
Dictionary of Jewish Biography. Dan Cohn-Sherbok.
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VILNA — (Pol. Wilno, Lithuanian Vilnius), from 1323 capital of the grand duchy of lithuania ; from 1940 to 1991 capital of the Lithuanian S.S.R.; from 1991 capital of Lithuania; called by East European Jewry, especially in the modern period, the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
RUSSIA — RUSSIA, former empire in Eastern Europe; from 1918 the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (R.S.F.S.R.), from 1923 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.); from 1990 the Russian Federation. Until 1772 ORIGINS The penetration… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
LITHUANIA — (Lithuanian Lietuva; Pol. Litwa; Rus. Litva; Heb. Lita ליטא or ליטה; Yid. Lite ליטע), southernmost of Baltic states of N.E. Europe; from 1940 Lithuanian S.S.R. (for early period, see poland lithuania ). (See Map: Lithuanian Communities). For the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ḤEVRA (Ḥavurah) KADDISHA — (Aram. חֶבְרָא קַדִּישָׁא; lit. holy brotherhood ), a term originally applied to a mutual benefit society whose services were restricted to its members, irrespective of the social, religious, or charitable purpose for which it was established (cf … Encyclopedia of Judaism